Department of Immunology

Gerald T. Nepom, M.D., Ph.D.


Dr. Nepom received his Bachelor’s degree in Biochemistry from Harvard. He attended the UW, receiving his Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1977 and his M.D. in 1978. After postdoctoral work in immunogenetics in the Department of Pathology at Harvard Medical School, he returned to Seattle, joining the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the UW School of Medicine Faculty in 1982. Since 1985 he has been a Member of the Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason where he served as director until 2015. He assumed leadership of the NIAID-sponsored Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) in 2010.


Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason
1201 Ninth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101-2795
Phone: 206-342-6516
Fax: 206-342-6581


Tolerance & Autoimmunity


Mary Roy,




Benaroya Research


Gerald Nepom on PubMed


Dr. Nepom’s interests are focused on identifying and understanding molecular and genetic mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and using this information to evaluate autoreactive T cell lineage and fate determination. Translational and clinical applications include development and use of immunological monitoring tools for predicting disease susceptibility and response to therapy in clinical trials, with special emphasis on type 1 diabetes.


  1. Long SA, Thorpe J, DeBerg HA, Gersuk V, Eddy J, Harris KM, Ehlers M, Herold K, Nepom GT, Linsley PS.  Partially exhausted CD8 T cells are associated with clinical response to teplizumab in new-onset type 1 diabetes.  Science Immunology 18 Nov 2016:Vol. 1, Issue 5, DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aai7793. PMID:28664195; PMCID: PMC5486405
  2. Cerosaletti K, Barahmand-Pour-Whitman F, Yang J, DeBerg HA, Dufort MJ, Murray SA, Israelsson E, Speake C, Gersuk VH, Eddy JA, Reijonen H, Greenbaum CJ, Kwok WW, Wambre E, Prlic M, Gottardo R, Nepom GT, Linsley PS. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Expanded Clones of Islet Antigen-Reactive CD4(+) T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes. J Immunol. 2017 May 31. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700172. PubMed PMID: 28566371.
  3. Renand A, Shamji MH, Harris KM, Qin T, Wambre E, Scadding GW, Wurtzen PA, Till SJ, Togias A, Nepom GT, Kwok WW, Durham SR. Synchronous Immune Alterations Mirror Clinical Response During Allergen Immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 May;141(5):1750-1760; PubMed PMID: 29128670.
  4. Glatigny S, Höllbacher B, Motley SJ, Tan C, Hundhausen C, Buckner JH, Smilek, Khoury SJ, Ding L, Qin T, Pardo J, Nepom GT, Turka LA, Harris KM, Campbell DJ, Bettelli E. Abatacept Targets T Follicular Helper and Regulatory T Cells, Disrupting Molecular Pathways That Regulate Their Proliferation and Maintenance. J Immunol. 2019 Mar 1;202(5):1373-1382. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1801425.  PubMed PMID: 30683697.
  5. Winters A, Bahnson HT, Ruczinski I, Boorgula MP, Malley C, Keramati AR, Chavan S, Larson D, Cerosaletti K, Sayre PH, Plaut M, Du Toit G, Lack G, Barnes KC, Nepom GT, Mathias RA; Immune Tolerance Network LEAP Study Team. The MALT1 locus and Peanut Avoidance in the Risk for Peanut Allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Feb 27. pii: S0091-6749(19)30279-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.02.016.  PubMed PMID: 30825465.
  6. Chow I-T, Gates TJ, Papadopoulos GK, Moustakas AK, Kolawole EM, Notturno RJ, McGinty JW, Torres-Chinn N, James EA, Greenbaum C, Nepom GT, Evavold BD, Kwok WW. Discriminative T cell recognition of cross-reactive islet-antigens is associated with HLA-DQ8 transdimer–mediated autoimmune diabetes.  Science Advances  21 Aug 2019:Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw9336. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw9336
  7. Wiedeman AE, Muir VS, Rosasco MG, DeBerg HA, Presnell S, Haas B, Dufort MJ, Speake C, Greenbaum CJ, Serti E, Nepom GT, Blahnik G, Kus AM, James EA, Linsley PS, Long SA. Autoreactive CD8+ T cell exhaustion distinguishes subjects with slow type 1 diabetes progression. J Clin Invest. 2020 Jan 2;130(1):480-490. doi:10.1172/JCI126595. PubMed PMID: 31815738.
  8. Abdelsamed HA, Zebley CC, Nguyen H, Rutishauser RL, Fan Y, Ghoneim HE, Crawford JC, Alfei F, Alli S, Ribeiro SP, Castellaw AH, McGargill MA, Jin H, Boi SK, Speake C, Serti E, Turka LA, Busch ME, Stone M, Deeks SG, Sekaly RP, Zehn D, James EA, Nepom GT, Youngblood B. Beta cell-specific CD8+ T cells maintain stem cell memory-associated epigenetic programs during type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol. 2020 May;21(5):578-587. doi: 10.1038/s41590-020-0633-5. Epub 2020 Mar 30. PMID: 32231298.
  9. Rigby MR, Harris KM, Pinckney A, DiMeglio LA, Rendell MS, Felner EI, Dostou, JM, Gitelman SE, Griffin KJ, Tsalikian E, Gottlieb PA, Greenbaum CJ, Sherry NA, Moore WV, Monzavi R, Willi SM, Raskin P, Keyes-Elstein L, Long SA, Kanaparthi S, Lim N, Phippard D, Soppe CL, Fitzgibbon ML, McNamara J, Nepom GT, Ehlers MR. Alefacept provides sustained clinical and immunological effects in new-onset type1 diabetes patients. J Clin Invest. 2015 Aug 3;125(8):3285-96. doi: 10.1172/JCI81722. Epub 2015 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 26193635.
  10. Durinovic-Belló I, Gersuk VH, Ni C, Wu R, Thorpe J, Jospe N, Sanda S, Greenbaum CJ, Nepom GT. Avidity-dependent programming of autoreactive T cells in T1D. PLoS One. 2014 May 20;9(5):e98074. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098074.  PubMed PMID: 24844227; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4028311.